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POTENSI OLEOKIMIA BIJI KENARI (Canarium indicum L) DAN HASIL MODULASI TRIGLISERIDANYA SEBAGAI ANTIDISLIPIDEMIA DAN PENGINDUKSI NEUROGENESIS

Oleh   Hamidah Rahman [30712003]
Kontributor / Dosen Pembimbing : Prof. Dr. Tutus Gusdinar Kartawinata, MS ; Prof. Ir. Johnner Sitompul, M.Sc., Ph.D. ; Dr. Kusnandar Anggadiredja, S.Si., M.Si.;
Jenis Koleksi : S3-Disertasi
Penerbit : Farmasi
Fakultas : Sekolah Farmasi (SF)
Subjek : Pharmacology & therapeutics
Kata Kunci : structured triglyceride, fatty acids, canary oil, enzymatic reaction, blood lipid, BDNF.
Sumber :
Staf Input/Edit : yana mulyana   Ena Sukmana
File : 7 file
Tanggal Input : 2019-01-03 11:53:46

The health surveys in Indonesia showed tendency on increase of cause of death by non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular, hypertension, diabetes and stroke. Cardiovascular disease can be triggered either by the high level of cholesterol or lipid level in blood. Besides that, there is a close correlation between hypercholesterolemia and the incident rate of hypertension. Another problem is the incidence rate of diseases related to old age such as degenerative and neurodegenerative diseases which will increase in prevalence as the impact of increase in life expentancy of Indonesian people at present. Even though it is stated that at present, the highest population composition is of young people, there is also quite a large portion of elderly people based on the current Indonesian population pyramid scheme. The consequence of the demographic change will be accompanied by the increase in demand for medicine and food which can act as a prevention as well as treatment of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson and dementia. This type of disorder and diseases can cause distraction of cognitive function which results in a decrease in patient’s quality of life. Up to the present, research on finding source of fatty acid especially essential fatty acid from plants and one that can give health benefit is still being conducted. In general, essential fatty acid is found in vegetable oil in the form of triglyceride. A number of research results also indicated that unsaturated fatty acid plays quite an important role towards the prevention and treatment of several types of diseases, among others treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, atheroschlerosis, arthritis, inflammation, and as antihypercholesterolemia. Unsaturated fatty acid also has an important role for the function of brain development and to control the function of membrane in the nervous system. The intake of unsaturated fatty acid either from Monounsaturated Fatty Acids or Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids can help slow down decrease in cognitive function including learning and memory, both in animal and human. Meanwhile, in Indonesia, there is quite an abundance of vegetable oil resource and has not been used maximally, one of which is vegetable oil derived from canary seeds. Canary tree from the species of Canarium indium L is a native of Indonesia v and until now has not been taken into account, but it actually has a potential to be developed as medicine and food source. The oil content of canary seed is approximately 75% w/w thus canary seed has similarities with other tree nuts which have prior been widely publicized, among others almond, cashew, walnut, Brazilnut and hazelnut. This research was conducted to study the potentials of canary seed as source of raw material in Indonesia to be developed as one of medicinal as well as food product. The research strategy was conducted by doing modulation to improve the triglyceride structure in canary oil. Several earlier researchers have reported use of various types of vegetable oil for the production of structured triglyceride, among others from palm, olive, sesame, almond, and hazelnut oils. Until now, research report on the use of canary oil for the production of structured triglyceride has not been found, thus this research is the first study on the use of canary oil from Canarium indicum L species for the raw material in the production of structured triglyceride type M (medium)-L (long)-M (medium) or MLM. The first stage of the research was to conduct extraction to obtain canary oil and followed by fatty acid composition analysis. The next stage was conducting modulation on triglyceride structure in canary oil to improve the triglyceride structure in order to improve the biochemical properties of triglyceride in canary oil. The triglyceride modulation which was later called structured triglyceride, was conducted in two stages of enzymatic reaction namely ethanolysis and esterification. Both stages of reaction used lipase enzyme cathalyst from Mucor miehei which has specific activity at position sn-1 and sn-3 from triglyceride structure. Characterization to structured triglyceride product was conducted through determination of chemical number, thermal properties characterization, position distribution analysis and fatty acid composition in structured triglyceride product. Next, product activity testing as antidislipidemia was done through blood lipid biochemical profile measuring and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum level measuring as a marker to determine the triglyceride product activity as neurogenesis inducer. The analysis of fatty acid composition in canary oil measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) found composition of three highest fatty acid consecutively: oleic acid (51.71%), linoleic acid (32.40%) and palmitic acid (10.31%). The composition has similarities with the composition of oil from other types of tree nuts. Next, the regioselective analysis of fatty acid position distribution in canary oil triglyceride showed composition of PUFAs at 93.96% at position sn-2. This shows that canary oil can be used as raw material in structured triglyceride production which can give physiological benefit to improve human health. The result of ethanolysis reaction showed the highest yield of 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) at 10.40% w/w during reaction for six hours. This intermediate product was then estherificated by incorporating caprylic acid (C8:0) as source of medium chain fatty acid (M) into the structure of 2-MAGs to further take the position of sn1 and sn-3 by lipase enzyme activity. After the incubation of three hours, as much as 45.36% caprylic acid was incorporated at position sn-1 and sn-3 in triglyceride vi structure. The yield of estherification was 69.51% w/w. Result of structured triglyceride product characterization showed that through triglyceride modulation in canary oil, improvement on physicochemistry quality has been done, among others shown by range of product melting point (45.70-65.50 °C) which improved and decrease in canary oil triglyceride molecule weight from 961.71 g/mol into 840.16 g/mol. Structured triglyceride product activity testing was conducted through blood biochemical profile measuring showing that the product can decrease triglyceride level by 6.20%; can decrease blood cholesterol level by 4.40%; decrease level of Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C) by 35.0% and increase level of High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) by 28.10% which was compared to dislipidemia rat group. For the activity testing as neurogenesis inducer, it showed that the product was able to increase the serum level of BDNF by 21.69% compared to normal group test animal.