ACUTE TOXICITY TEST OF BAJAKAH PLANT AND BLACK PEPPER (PIPER NIGRUM L.) BY USING ZEBRAFISH MODEL (DANIO RERIO) AND ANTI-ANGIOGENESIS LITERATURE REVIEW OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
Angiogenesis is the generation of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature. Angiogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of several diseases such those as chronic inflammatory diseases, diabetic retinopathy, and tumor growth. Research on anti-angiogenesis activity just begun arising in its popularity and are still very limited, thus one of the aims of this study is to present literature review of anti-angiogenic activity of several medicinal plants. Acute toxicity test towards zebrafish embryos is also conducted to evaluate the toxic effect and determine LC50 value. Acute toxicity test is conducted referring to the guideline of Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) protocol no. 236 year 2013, which includes a normal group (DMSO 0,01%), positive control group (3,4-dichloroaniline 4 µg/ml), and extract test group. Zebrafish embryos are exposed to ethanolic extract of bajakah and Piper nigrum L. starting from age 6hpf. The effects of the exposure caused malformations towards the zebrafish embryos such that as yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, eye, tail, somite and back bone deformations. The obtained LC50 for bajakah is 226.3 µg/ml, showing slight toxicity, and Piper nigrum L. is 30.1 µg/ml, showing moderate toxicity. From literature review, natural product derivatives of Vitex agnus cactus L., Anarrhium pedatum, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., Alpinia caerulea (R. Br.) Benth., Kaempferia galanga L., Garcinia multiflora Champ. Ex Benth, and Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen & C.Ling exhibit anti-angiogenesis activity.