The artificial synthesis of graphdiyne (GDY) in 2010 successfully fills the blank of low temperature preparation of all-carbon allotropes. GDY is an emerging two-dimensional (2D) planar carbon material composed of benzene rings moieties (sp2 carbon atoms), butadiyne (sp carbon atoms) linkers, and well dispersed electron-rich cavities, forming a large ?- conjunction structure. GDY has attracted increasing attention in many fields. GDY is the first carbon material with both 2D fast transfer channels for electrons and 3D channels for ions. The 2D electron-rich all-carbon nature endows GDY with considerable conductivity and tunable electronic properties, and the in-plane cavities give it intrinsic selectivity and accessibility for electrochemically active metal ions. In addition, its easy preparation under mild conditions well complements the disadvantages of the traditional sp2-hybridized carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphite) in the highly efficient synthesis and processing for potential electrochemical applications.