digilib@itb.ac.id +62 812 2508 8800

Tools to analyze sites where Joule-Thomson cooling can be a prohibitive factor is required in order to plan and design CO2 injection, both for geo-sequestration or enhanced oil recovery method, to mitigate hydrate formation and stop injectivity loss. In this study, a simple analytical solution will be presented by assuming constant thermophysical properties and steady-state flow. A mathematical model will be developed with effects by variation of formation damage cause by perforation and injection process. This model will be developed in order to determine optimal solutions to maximize injectivity to reservoir while avoiding further temperature drops and hydrate formation. Testing the capabilities of the solution will be done with sensitivity analysis and evaluation with a case study of Well X using more accessible application, analytical solution that can be implemented using simple spreadsheet software, which allows for fast evaluation in a constant CO2 injection rate. Sensitivity analysis study using the analytical solution shows that lower permeability leads to even higher pressure gradient. This corresponds with how lower permeability allows greater temperature decline. Consequently, lower permeability causes greater pressure declines due to the Joule-Thomson effect. The effect caused by lower permeability are significantly enhanced by the presence of formation damage. In the particular case of Well X, for an injection rate of 2 kg/s into warm formation (>100 oF). JTC unlikely will occur even with initial reservoir pressure as low as 100 psi.