We investigate the critical behavior of the entanglement transition induced by projective measurements in (Haar) random unitary quantum circuits. Using a replica approach, we map the calculation of the entanglement entropies in such circuits onto a two-dimensional statistical-mechanics model. In this language, the area- to volume-law entanglement transition can be interpreted as an ordering transition in the statistical-mechanics model. We derive the general scaling properties of the entanglement entropies and mutual information near the transition using conformal invariance. We analyze in detail the limit of infinite on-site Hilbert space dimension in which the statistical-mechanics model maps onto percolation. In particular, we compute the exact value of the universal coefficient of the logarithm of subsystem size in the nth Rényi entropies for n 1 in this limit using relatively recent results for the conformal field theory describing the critical theory of two-dimensional (2D) percolation, and we discuss how to access the generic transition at finite on-site Hilbert space dimension from this limit, which is in a universality class different from 2D percolation. We also comment on the relation to the entanglement transition in random tensor networks, studied previously in Vasseur et al. [Phys. Rev. B 100, 134203 (2019)].