Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) are of emerging concern due to their potential environmental risks. However, the environmental occurrence and fate of SPAs are poorly understood. In this study, 13 SPAs were analyzed in 70 liquid and 21 solid samples from 12 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 2016 to investigate the distribution and composition of SPAs in different wastewater treatment processes in Canada. Wastewater samples were liquid-liquid extracted and biosolids were treated using ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction. SPAs were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of total SPAs were in the ranges of 71e3193 ng L1 in influent, less than method quantification limits (MQLs)-520 ng L1 in effluent, and 479e4794 ng g1 in biosolids (dry weight (dw)). SPAs were effectively removed (median >75%) from the liquid stream in most WWTPs. In one aerated lagoon and two primary treatment sites, low removal efficiency (median 26%- 43%) was observed for 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tOP). These results indicate that wastewater effluent is a vector for SPAs, including the endocrine disruptor 4-tOP, to aquatic environments. The mass balance approximation found major removal mechanisms are sludge sorption/separation and degradation. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that most SPAs in WWTP effluent were unlikely to pose ecotoxicological risks to aquatic organisms in the receiving waters. Future research should evaluate the environmental risks of SPAs associated with land application of biosolids and investigate the occurrence and fate of the degradation products of these contaminants.