Path: TopS3-DissertationsEngineering Science2010

THE PERFORMANCES OF PORCELAIN AND EPOXY RESIN OUTDOOR INSULATORS IN TROPICAL COASTAL AND GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTS

KINERJA ISOLATOR PASANGAN LUAR BERBAHAN PORSELEN DAN EPOXY RESIN DALAM KONDISI LINGKUNGAN PESISIR DAN PANAS BUMI YANG BERIKLIM TROPIS

PhD Theses from JBPTITBPP / 2014-08-08 09:35:48
Oleh : W A L U Y O (NIM : 332 05 005); Tim Pembimbing : Prof. Dr. Ing. Ir. Ngapuli Irmea Sinisuka; Prof. Dr. Ir. Suwarno MT; Prof. Dr. Maman A. Djauhari , S3 - Engineering Sciences
Dibuat : 2010, dengan 9 file

Keyword : canonical correlation analysis, coastal, coefficient correlation, epoxy resin, geothermal, humidity, insulator, leakage current, phase angle, pollutant, porcelain, principal component analysis, total harmonic distortion

Overhead transmission or distribution lines are widely used in the present power system to transmit electric energy from generation stations to customer points. Their performances strongly depend on the insulation system. Outdoor insulators, as part of transmission or distribution lines, experience various stresses, such as electrical, mechanical and environmental stresses. Besides experiencing those stresses, some kinds of insulators may have different endurances to them. Thus, there are many aspects which influence the insulator performances. These aspects should be investigated and/or quantified in terms of the influence on the insulator performance.
This doctoral research was conducted mainly to investigate the performance of porcelain and epoxy resin insulator samples installed at Pangandaran substation, near the coast, and at Kamojang substation, near the geothermal power plant. A coastal area is one kind of severely polluted area. In contrast, a geothermal area creates emission of chemical materials. As scientifically hypothesized, those materials, at a certain level, might reduce outdoor insulator performance.
Therefore, it is important to carry out a research concerning outdoor insulator performance related to coastal and geothermal areas, with more than one kind of insulator samples and by developing new methods.
This research is the measurements of leakage currents from each new-clean up to eight polluted identical 20 kV porcelain and epoxy resin insulators. The polluted insulators were installed at Pangandaran substation, around 500 m from the Southern Sea, on December 15th, 2006, and at Kamojang substation, around 1447m above sea level, on December 14th, 2006. These insulators were taken gradually
in the period of 3 to 4 months to be tested in a hermetically sealed chamber, for leakage current measurements, on various temperatures, humidity, pressures and applied voltage amplitudes simultaneously. The leakage current and applied voltage waveform measurements used a two-channel storage digital oscilloscope.
The data were recorded and transferred to a computer using USB, and saved in softcopy forms. The leakage current waveforms were analyzed by using fast Fourier transform, so that the frequency spectra and total harmonic distortion
could be obtained. The relations among parameters were analyzed by using multivariate statistical tools, namely correlation coefficient, principal component and canonical correlation analyses.
The tests were done on SEM, EDAX, deposited pollutant solution, hydrophobic conditions and some supporting researches, such as on-site leakage current, artificially polluted, discharge current measurements and computer simulation. Generally, the results indicate that the porcelain insulators are more susceptible to environmental conditions than the epoxy resin ones. The influences of coastal contamination are greater than those of geothermal emission. These cases are indicated by either the individual correlations or statistical computations. The
ratios of porcelain insulator impedance at Pangandaran substation on the high and low humidity range between 0.46 and 0.03. On the high humidity (99% RH), the minimum phase angles of porcelain insulator leakage currents range between 58.8 and 7.2 degrees, and the minimum THDs range between 14.9% and 4.9%, whereas the ratios of the epoxy resin insulator impedances on the high and low humidity range between 0.85 and 0.57. On the high humidity, the leakage current phase angles range between 73.6 and 58.1 degrees, and the minimum THDs range between 20.7% and 8.8%.
At Kamojang substation, the ratios of the porcelain insulator impedances on the high and low humidity range between 0.87 and 0.13. On the high humidity, the leakage current phase angles range between 66.8 and 25.7 degrees, and the minimum THDs range between 12.4% and 7.8%. The ratios of the epoxy resin insulator impedances on the high and low humidity range between 0.98 and 0.64. On the high humidity, the minimum leakage current phase angles range between 90 and 57.4 degrees. Finally, the minimum THDs range between 22.4% and 14.1%.
The scatter plots of canonical correlation analyses on the epoxy resin insulators are usually more dispersed than that of the porcelain insulators at each substation. The averages correlation coefficients of the humidity on the THD, phase angle and the leakage current amplitude were -0.5613,-0.5150 and 0.4150 for the coastal polluted porcelain insulators respectively. The input parameter influence on the leakage current parameters for the coastal and geothermal polluted porcelain insulators were 0.9568 and 0.9262 of canonical correlations respectively. The surface of the epoxy resin insulator specimen was more
degraded than that of the porcelain one at the same substations and on the same withdrawals. The epoxy resin specimens at Pangandaran substation are more significantly degraded than that of at Kamojang substation. The average contact angle reductions of the epoxy resin specimens at Pangandaran and Kamojang substations were 0.12 and 0.08 degrees/day respectively. The significant chemical
elements of pollutants from the coastal area were Cl, Ca and Na, and that from the geothermal area was sulphur.

Deskripsi Alternatif :

Saluran transmisi atau distribusi udara banyak digunakan dalam sistem tenaga untuk mentransmisikan energi listrik dari pusat pembangkitan ke pelanggan. Kinerjanya sangat bergantung pada sistem isolasi. Isolator pasangan luar,


sebagai bagian saluran transmisi atau distribusi, mengalami berbagai tekanan, seperti tekanan listrik, mekanik dan lingkungan. Di samping tekanan tersebut, terdapat juga beberapa jenis isolator yang mana mempunyai tingkat ketahanan berbeda terhadap tekanan tersebut. Dengan demikian, terdapat banyak aspek yang mempengaruhi kinerja isolator. Aspek-aspek ini perlu diteliti dan/atau dikuantifikasi dalam pengaruhnya terhadap kinerja isolator.
Penelitian doktor ini terutama menyelediki kinerja sample isolator porselen dan epoxy resin yang terpasang di gardu induk Pangandaran, berdekatan dengan pantai, dan gardu induk Kamojang, berdekatan dengan pusat listrik panas bumi.
Kawasan pesisir merupakan salah satu macam kawasan berpolusi berat. Pada sisi lain, kawasan panas bumi menimbulkan emisi bahan kimia. Sebagai hipotesis ilmiah, bahan kimia tersebut, pada tingkat tertentu, dapat mengurangi kinerja isolator. Oleh karena itu, hal ini penting untuk dilakukan penelitian mengenai kinerja isolator kaitannya dengan kawasan pesisir dan panas bumi, dengan melibatkan lebih dari satu jenis sampel isolator dan dengan pengembangan metoda baru.
Penelitian ini merupakan pengukuran arus bocor isolator porselen dan epoxy resin 20 kV dari berkondisi baru bersih sampai terpolusi delapan pengambilan. Isolator terpolusi telah dipasang di gardu induk Pangandaran, sekitar 500 m dari laut selatan, pada 15 Desember 2006, dan di gardu induk Kamojang, sekitar 1447 di atas permukaan laut, pada 14 December 2006, secara bersama-sama. Isolatorisolator
tersebut diambil secara bertahap antara rentang 3 sampai 4 bulan untuk diuji dalam suatu kamar kabut tertutup rapat, untuk pengukuran arus bocor, pada berbagai temperatur, kelembaban, tekanan dan amplitudo tegangan yang
diterapkan secara simultan. Pengukuran bentuk gelombang arus bocor dan tegangan yang diterapkan menggunakan osiloskop digital penyimpanan dua kanal. Data direkam dan ditransfer ke komputer menggunakan USB dan disimpan dalam bentuk data perangkat lunak. Bentuk gelombang arus bocor dianalisis menggunakan fast Fourier transform, sehingga diperoleh spektrum frekuensi dan distorsi harmonisa total. Hubungan antar parameter dianalisis menggunakan statistik multivariate, yaitu analisis koefisien korelasi, komponen utama dan korelasi kanonik.
Dilakukan juga uji SEM, EDAX, larutan polutan tangkapan, kondisi hidrofobisitas dan beberapa pengukuran pendukung lain, seperti pengukuran arus bocor di lapangan, menggunakan polutan tiruan, arus peluahan dan simulasi dengan komputer.
Secara umum, hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa isolator porselen lebih rentan terhadap kondisi lingkungan daripada isolator epoxy resin. Pengaruh kontaminasi pesisir lebih besar daripada emisi panas bumi. Kasus ini ditunjukkan oleh korelasi tersendiri atau perhitungan statistika. Perbandingan impedansi isolator porselen dari gardu induk Pangandaran pada kelembaban tinggi dan rendah berkisar antara 0,46 dan 0,03. Pada kelembaban tinggi, sudut fasa arus bocor minimum isolator porselen berkisar antara 58,8 dan 7,2 derajad, dan THD minimum dalam rentang antara 14,9% dan 4,9%, sementara, perbandingan impedansi isolator epoxy resin pada kelembaban tinggi dan rendah berselang antara 0,85 dan 0,57. Pada kelembaban tinggi, sudut fasa arus bocor minimum berselang antara 73,6 dan 58,1 derajad, dan THD minimum berselang antara 20,7 % dan 8,8 %.
Dari gardu induk Kamojang, perbandingan impedansi isolator porselen pada kelembaban tinggi dan rendah berselang antara 0,87 sampai 0,13. Pada kelembaban tinggi, sudut fasa arus bocor minimum isolator porselen berselang antara 66,8 dan 25,7 derajad, dan THD minimum berselang antara 12,4 % dan
7,8 %. Perbandingan impedansi isolator epoxy resin pada kelembaban tinggi dan rendah berselang antara 0,98 dan 0,64. Pada kelembaban tinggi, sudut fasa arus bocor minimum berselang antara 90 dan 57,4 derajad dan, akhirnya, THD
minimum berselang antara 22,4% dan 14,1%. Plot penyebaran dari hasil-hasil analisis korelasi kanonik pada isolator epoxy resin biasanya lebih tersebar daripada yang isolator porselen dari masing-masing gardu induk. Koefisien
korelasi kelembaban berturut-turut terhadap THD, sudut fasa dan amplitudo arus bocor adalah -0,5613; -0,5150 dan 0,4150 untuk isolator porselen terpolusi pesisir. Pengaruh parameter masukan terhadap parameter arus bocor berturut-turut untuk isolator porselen terpolusi pesisir dan panas bumi adalah 0,9568 dan 0,9262 besaran korelasi kanonik. Permukaan spesimen epoxy resin terdegradasi lebih berat daripada porselen untuk lokasi yang sama. Spesimen epoxy resin di gardu induk Pangandaran terdegradasi lebih berat daripada yang di Kamojang. Pengurangan sudut kontak rata-rata specimen epoxy resin berturut-turut di gardu induk Pangandaran dan Kamojang adalah 0.12 dan 0.08 derajad/hari. Unsur kimia polutan yang signifikan di kawasan pesisir adalah Cl, Ca dan Na, dan yang di kawasan panas bumi adalah belerang.

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  • Tim Pembimbing : Prof. Dr. Ing. Ir. Ngapuli Irmea Sinisuka; Prof. Dr. Ir. Suwarno MT; Prof. Dr. Maman A. Djauhari , Editor: Alice Diniarti

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