Path: TopS2-ThesesChemistry2015

PENGARUH PERLAKUAN AWAL RUMPUT GAJAH (Pennisetum purpureum) DENGAN MICROWAVE ASSISTED ORGANIC SYNTHESIS (MAOS) DAN KOFERMENTASI UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOETANOL

THE EFFECT OF ELEPHANT GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum) PRETREATMENT BY MICROWAVE ASSISTED ORGANIC SYNTHESIS (MAOS) AND ITS COFERMENTATION TO THE PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL

Master Theses from JBPTITBPP / 2017-04-21 08:03:56
Oleh : SEFRINUS MARIA DOLFI KOLO (NIM : 20513080), S2 - Chemistry
Dibuat : 2015, dengan 7 file

Keyword : Rumput gajah (Pennisetum purpureum), delignifikasi, hidrolisis asam encer, Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS), kofermentasi, bioetanol.

Peningkatan jumlah penduduk menyebabkan kebutuhan sarana transportasi dan aktivitas industri semakin bertambah yang berakibat pada peningkatan konsumsi bahan bakar minyak (BBM). Meningkatnya konsumsi bahan bakar minyak

(BBM) ini tidak seiring dengan produksi minyak bumi yang dihasilkan sehingga diperlukan suatu cara untuk mengkonversi pemakaian bahan bakar fosil ke bahan

bakar nabati. Salah satu alternatif bahan bakar nabati untuk menggantikan minyak bumi yaitu pemanfaatan rumput gajah menjadi bioetanol. Rumput gajah (Pennisetum purpureum) merupakan bahan lignoselulosa yang sangat potensial untuk produksi bioetanol. Kandungan lignoselulosa rumput gajah dapat dikonversi menjadi gula heksosa dan pentosa (glukosa dan xilosa) melalui

kombinasi teknik delignifikasi dan hidrolisis asam dengan metode Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS). Campuran gula optimum hasil proses hidrolisis kemudian dikonversi menjadi etanol menggunakan 2 jenis ragi yaitu Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITB-R89 dan Pichia stipitis ITB-R58. Kofermentasi dilakukan dengan variasi konsentrasi inokulum 5, 10 dan 20% (v/v) selama 5 hari

pada temperatur 30 oC dan pH 4,5. Analisis kandungan lignoselulosa dilakukan dengan metode Cheson Datta. Analisis tekstur permukaan sampel rumput gajah

dilakukan dengan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Analisis gula pereduksi dilakukan dengan metode dinitrosalisilat (DNS). Analisis gula xilosa, etanol dan

asam asetat dilakukan dengan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi (KCKT). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan awal teknik delignifikasi dihasilkan selulosa 47,4%, hemiselulosa 24,3%, lignin 10,8% dan 10,7% kadar abu dan hidrolisis asam encer menggunakan metode MAOS dengan kondisi reaksi optimum microwave yaitu daya iradiasi 400 W, temperatur diatur 95 oC, durasi

microwave selama 30 menit dan reaksi dibantu dengan larutan H2SO4 2% (v/v) dihasilkan gula pereduksi optimum sebesar 26,63 g/L dan efisiensi hidrolisis mencapai 66,57%. Berdasarkan hasil analisis KCKT, konsentrasi inokulum optimum pada tahap kofermentasi untuk produksi bioetanol adalah 10% (v/v). Proses kofermentasi selama 48 jam menggunakan konsentrasi inokulum ini dapat

mengkonversi substrat (glukosa dan xilosa) sebesar 76,15% untuk memproduksi etanol dengan konsentrasi 10,79 g/L (rendemen etanol 34,74%), laju produktivitas

etanol optimum 0,45 g/L/hari. Efisiensi fermentasi mencapai 69,48%. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa penelitian ini telah berhasil memperoleh bioetanol melalui teknik kofermentasi dengan 2 jenis ragi Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITB-R89 dan Pichia stipitis ITB-R58 menggunakan konsentrasi inokulum 10%.

Deskripsi Alternatif :

The increase in population led to the increase in the needs of transportations and industrial activities resulting in the increase in the consumption of fuel. The increase in the consumption of fuel is not in line with the production of oil, therefore the needs to convent the use of fossil fuels into biofuels are increased as well. One alternative biofuels to replace fossil fuels, such as petroleum, is bioethanol. In this study, bioethanol was derived from the biomass conversion of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) as lignocellulosic material that is very potential for the production of bioethanol. The lignocellulosic content of elephant grass can be converted to hexose and pentose sugars (glucose and xylose) through the combination of delignification techniques and acid hydrolysis by Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. The optimum sugar mixtures of hydrolysis product were subsequently converted into ethanol employing two types

of yeast, which are Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITB-R58 and Pichia stipitis cerevisiae ITB-R89. The cofermentation of hydrolysis products was carried out by varying the concentrations of inoculum (5, 10 and 20% (v/v)) for 5 days at temperature of 30 °C and pH 4.5. The analysis of lignocellulose content was conducted according to Cheson Datta method. The analysis of the surface morphology of elephant grass powder was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The reducing sugar analysis was performed by dinitrosalicylic (DNS) method. The analysis of the xylose sugar, ethanol and acetic acid was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the pretreatment employing delignification resulted 47,4% cellulose, 24,3% hemicellulose, 10,8% lignin and 10,7% ash and dilute acid hydrolysis techniques using MAOS method at optimum microwave reaction conditions, in which the irradiation power was 400 W, the setting temperature was

95 °C, the microwave duration was 30 minutes and the reaction was held in 2% (v/v) H2SO4 solution, resulted the optimum reducing sugars concentration of about

26,63 g/L that corresponds to 66,57% hydrolysis efficiency. According to the result of HPLC analysis, the optimum inoculum concentration used in the

cofermentation process using this inoculum concentration the substrate (glucose and xylose) utilization was about 76,15% resulting ethanol concentration about 10.79 g/L (34.74% yields), with the optimal ethanol productivity rate about 0.45 g/L.days. These result correspond to the fermentation efficiency about 69.48%. This study thus has successfully to obtain bioethanol trough cofermentation technic with two types of yeast, which are Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITB-R58 and Pichia stipitis cerevisiae ITB-R89 by inoculum concentration 10%.

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OrganisasiS2 - Chemistry
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NegaraIndonesia
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