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PENYUSUNAN STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN INDUSTRI DAN PERDAGANGAN PANGAN DI KAWASAN PURWASUKA

Master Theses from JBPTITBPP / 2017-09-27 14:50:29
Oleh : MEIWARDI YUSWAN (NIM : 23403068) ; PEMBIMBING : Dr. Ir. Marne Slamet Sutoko, S2 - Industrial Engineering and Management
Dibuat : 2005, dengan 8 file

Keyword : positioning, location quotient, sub sektor, daya samg, klaster, wholesale

Berdasarkan Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Propinsi (RTRWP) Jawa Barat Pemerintah Propinsi Jawa Barat telah menetapkan delapan kawasan andalan yang di antaranya Kawasan PURWASUKA (Purwakarta, Subang, Karawang). Sektor unggulan di Kawasan PURWASUKA di antaranya industri, pertanian dan perdagangan. Karena itu arah penelitian ini adalah mengkaji bagaimana agar Kawasan PURWASUKA dapat menjadi salah satu basis industri dan perdagangan pangan regional di Jawa Barat yang berdaya saing tinggi melalui pendekatan klaster industri dan perdagangan wholesale dengan indikator: tingginya efisiensi, pangsa pasar dan pendapatan pelaku usaha komoditas pangan.






Penyusunan strategi pengembangan industri dan perdagangan pangan di Kawasan PURWASUKA menggunakan pendekatan Positioning School yaitu penyusunan strategi sebagai suatu proses analitis. Metodologi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari metode Location Quotient/1.Q, analisis sub sektor, analisis daya saing diamond Porter dan analisis pengembangan klaster. Metode LQ digunakan untuk identifikasi komoditas dan industri pangan unggulan, identifikasi sebaran sentra pertanian dan industri. Analisis sub sektor merupakan kajian aliran komoditas pangan dari sentra pertanian hingga tingkat konsumen akhir dalam bentuk peta sub sektor clan, analisis efisiensi kanal distribusi komoditas pangan dengan kriteria tingkat pemenuhan kebutuhan (service level) dan marjin harga pada jalur distribusi.





Analisis diamond Porter digunakan untuk mengkaji daya saing industri pangan dan kondisi internal (kekuatan, kelemahan) serta eksternal (peluang dan ancaman) industri tersebut. Sedangkan analisis pengembangan klaster digunakan untuk menyusun strategi pengembangan industri dan perdagangan pangan.






Berdasarkan perhitungan menggunakan metode Location Quotient (LQ), kabupaten di Kawasan PURWASUKA yang paling banyak memiliki potensi unggulan pertanian adalah Kabupaten Subang diikuti Karawang dan Purwakarta masing-masing sebanyak 28, 23, dan 22 jenis komoditas unggulan. Analisis efisiensi distribusi menunjukan bahwa struktur pasar komoditas pangan belum sempurna dan belum berkeadilan, sistem perdagangan dan distribusi komoditas pangan belum efisien, sistem informasi pasar belum mapan dan efektif, promosi perdagangan komoditas pangan masih kurang, kemampuan pelaku kegiatan perdagangan masih lemah untuk sebagian lesar komoditas pangan unggulan di Kawasan PURWASUKA. Hasil penting analisis daya saing dan analisis internaleksternal sentra industri kerupuk ikan yang berpotensi dikembangkan menjadi klaster industri pangan di Kawasan PURWASUKA adalah (a) Daya saing faktor input seperti mesin, teknologi tergolong rendah, sedangkan daya saing faktornput sumber daya manusia dan sarana distribusi tergolong tinggi; (b) Persaingan terjadi secara horisontal antar perusahaan sejenis sangat ketat; (c) Industri pemasok bahan baku (tapioka) terletak di luar kawasan sementara bahan dasar (ubi kayu) ada di dalam kawasan; (d) Kebutuhan pasar kerupuk ikanludang masih tumbuh baik untuk pasar regional, nasional bahkan manca negara.




Inti dari strategi yang direkomendasikan adalah membangun keterkaitan antara sektor pertanian dan industri pangan sedemikian hingga dapat unggul paling tidak di tingkat regional Propinsi Jawa Barat. Secara umum strategi pengembangan industri dan perdagangan pangan di Kawasan PURWASUKA selama 5-10 ke depan diarahkan pada peningkatan pangsa pasar, peningkatan efisiensi produksi (untuk industri pangan) dan peningkatan marjin keuntungan yang diperoleh produsen, peningkatan efisiensi distribusi komoditas pangan (untuk perdagangan pangan). Karena itu rekomendasi implementasi strategi yang diprioritaskan adalah upaya pengembangan jaringan kerj a sama secara vertikal antara pelaku usaha pertanian, industri dan perdagangan pangan.dalam bentuk pembangunan suatu pasar wholesale (pasar induk) di Kawasan PURWASUKA.

Deskripsi Alternatif :

West Java Province Government has established based on Province Spatial Regional Planning that PURWASUKA (Purwakarta, Subang, Karawang) region as a priority region in West Java. Priority sectors in PURWASUKA region are industry, agriculture and trade. Further more this research is oriented to consider how PURWASUKA region could be one of food industry and trade center in West Java Province with high competitiveness through industrial cluster and wholesale trade approach which indicated by high efficiency, market share and revenue.






Strategy formation of food industry and trade development in PURWASUKA region uses positioning school approach that strategy formation as an analytical process. Methodology which used in the research consists of Location Quotient (LQ), diamond Porter competitiveness analysis, sub sector analysis and cluster development analysis. LQ method is used for identification of food commodity and industry. Diamond Porter competitiveness analysis is used to identify food industry competitiveness and its internal-external condition comprises its strength, weakness, opportunity and threat.





Sub sector analysis is a useful tool to identify food commodity flow from producer level until consumer level in sub sector mapping form and also to analyze distribution efficiency using service level and price margin criteria. Cluster development analysis is a tool for strategy formulation in this research including problems, strategy and implementation formulation of food industry and trade in PURWASUKA region.






Based on calculation using LQ method, Subang, Karawang and Purwakarta regencies have respectively 28, 23, and 22 priority food commodities. Result LQ analysis method also shows that there is shrimp cracker industry group which has potential to be an industrial cluster. Result of distribution flow and efficiency analysis shows that food commodity distribution as industry raw material and as commodity needed by end consumer is not efficient, there is no good market information system, weakness in marketing. and human resources.





The other important result from diamond Porter competitiveness analysis that for shrimp cracker industry group in PURWASUKA region: (a) its machinery and technology are weak factors but on the other hand human resources and transportation facility are quite good; (b) there is high competition among shrimp cracker industries inside or outside the group; (c) tapioca flour industries as suppliers for shrimp cracker industry is outside PURWASUKA region while cassava as main raw material for tapioca industry is abundant in PURWASUKA region; (d) Shrimp cracker demand is high and still increase for regional, national and international market.Main idea of recommended strategy is a linkage development between industry and agriculture sectors so that PURWASUKA region could be one of food industry and trade center in West Java Province with high competitiveness. Generally development strategy of food industry and trade in next 5 - 10 years is oriented to increase market share, production efficiency (for food industry sector) and to increase producer benefit margin and distribution efficiency of food commodity (for food trade sector). Further more recommended strategy implementation which has to be a priority is vertical networking development among stakeholder in agriculture, industry and trade through development a wholesale market in PURWASUKA region.

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