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VARIASI KANDUNGAN KOMPONEN FISIK DAN KIMIA DELAPAN JENIS TANAMAN POTENSIAL ENERGI DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP NILAI KALOR (Arenga pinnata, Gliricidia sepium, Gmelina arborea, Calliandra calothyrsus, Coffea arabica, Leucaena leucocephala, Paraserianthes falcataria, Toona sinensis)

VARIATIONS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF EIGHT SPECIES OF POTENTIAL ENERGY PLANTS AND ITS EFFECT ON CALOR VALUE

Undergraduate Theses from JBPTITBPP / 2018-09-14 16:08:04
Oleh : MARDHATHILLAH AULIA (NIM : 11514016), S1 - Forestry Engineering-SITH
Dibuat : 2018-09-14, dengan 1 file

Keyword : energi, kadar abu, kadar air, lignoselulosa, nilai kalor, zat ekstraktif

Kebutuhan energi semakin tinggi dan pengembangan energi terbarukan sebagai energi yang lebih ramah lingkungan semakin banyak dilakukan. Hutan rakyat adalah hutan yang sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan potensi energinya karena selain memenuhi kebutuhan energi yang ramah lingkungan, juga dapat meningkatkan produktivitas hutan rakyat tersebut. Potensi energi dari hutan rakyat dapat diketahui dari nilai kalor. Kandungan komponen kimia dan fisik biomassa mempengaruhi nilai kalornya saat dijadikan bahan energi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komponen kimia (kadar lignoselulosa, kadar zat ekstraktif, dan kadar abu) dan fisik (kadar air, kerapatan, dan nilai kalor) delapan jenis tanaman potensial energi (Arenga pinnata, Calliandra calothyrsus, Coffea arabica, Gliricidia sepium, Gmelina arborea, Leucaena leucocephala, Paraserianthes falcataria, dan Toona sinensis) dan mengetahui hubungan komponen kimia dan fisik tanaman potensial energi yang berpengaruh terhadap nilai kalor. Kadar lignoselulosa dan kadar abu diukur dengan metode Chesson-Datta, sementara kadar zat ekstraktif diukur dengan metode TAPPI T 207 om-88. Kadar air diukur dengan metode ASTM E-871, kerapatan dengan metode SNI 8021:2014, dan nilai kalor dengan metode ASTM E 830-87. Hubungan komponen kimia dan fisik terhadap nilai kalor dianalisis dengan menggunakan grafik scatter. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar hemiselulosa tertinggi terdapat pada kulit tandan buah A. pinnata (20,33%) dan terendah terdapat pada batang C. calothyrsus (8,33%), kadar selulosa tertinggi terdapat pada kulit tandan buah A. pinnata (63,33%) dan terendah terdapat pada batang C. calothyrsus (25,67%), kadar lignin terendah terdapat pada kulit tandan buah A. pinnata (9,33%) dan tertinggi terdapat pada batang C. calothyrsus (18,33%), kadar abu terendah terdapat pada kulit tandan buah A. pinnata (4%) dan tertinggi terdapat pada batang C. calothyrsus (0,24%), kadar zat ekstraktif terendah terdapat pada kulit tandan buah A. pinnata (20,67%) dan tertinggi terdapat pada batang C. calothyrsus (45%), kadar air tertinggi terdapat pada kulit tandan buah A. pinnata (107,89%) dan terendah terdapat pada batang C. calothyrsus (8,31%), kerapatan terendah terdapat pada kulit tandan buah A. pinnata (0,3 g/cm3) dan tertinggi terdapat pada batang T. sinensis (0,50 g/cm3), dan nilai kalor terendah terdapat pada kulit tandan buah A. pinnata (4157,23 kal/g) dan tertinggi terdapat pada batang C. calothyrsus (4561,26 kal/g). Analisis menggunakan diagram scatter menunjukkan bahwa kadar lignin, kadar zat ekstraktif, dan kerapatan memiliki korelasi positif dengan nilai kalor sedangkan kadar hemiselulosa, kadar selulosa, kadar abu, dan kadar abu memiliki korelasi negatif dengan nilai kalor.

Deskripsi Alternatif :

Higher energy needs and the development of renewable energy as more environmentally friendly energy are increasingly being carried out. Private forest is a forest that has the potential to develop its energy potential because in addition to meeting energy needs that are environmentally friendly, it can also increase the productivity of the private forest. Energy potential of private forests can be known from the heat value. The content of the chemical and physical components of biomass affects the heating value when used as energy material. This study aims to determine the chemical components (lignocellulose levels, extractive substances levels, and ash content) and physical (water content, density, and heat value) of eight types of potential energy plants (Arenga pinnata, Calliandra calothyrsus, Coffea arabica, Gliricidia sepium, Gmelina arborea, Leucaena leucocephala, Paraserianthes falcataria, and Toona sinensis) and determine the relationship between chemical and physical components of potential energy plants that affect heat values. Lignocellulose content and ash content were measured by the Chesson-Datta method, while extractive substances were measured by the TAPPI T 207 om-88 method. Moisture content was measured by ASTM E-871 method, density with SNI 8021: 2014 method, and heating value with ASTM E 830-87 method. The relationship of chemical and physical components to heating values was analyzed using scatter graphs. The results showed that the highest hemicellulose levels were in the skin of A. pinnata fruit bunches (20.33%) and the lowest was in C. calothyrsus stem (8.33%), the highest cellulose content found in the skin of A. pinnata fruit bunches (63, 33%) and the lowest was in C. calothyrsus stems (25.67%), the lowest lignin content was found in A. pinnata fruit bunches (9.33%) and the highest was in C. calothyrsus stem (18.33%), the lowest ash content was found in the skin of A. pinnata fruit bunches (4%) and the highest was in C. calothyrsus stem (0.24%), the lowest levels of extractive substances were found in A. pinnata fruit bunches (20.67%) and the highest found in C. calothyrsus stem (45%), the highest moisture content was found in A. pinnata fruit bunches (107.89%) and the lowest was in C. calothyrsus stem (8.31%), the lowest density was found in fruit bunches skin. A. pinnata (0.3 g / cm3) and the highest is in T. sinensis stem (0.50 g / cm3), and the lowest heating value is erdapat is on the skin of A. pinnata fruit bunches (4157.23 cal / g) and the highest is in C. calothyrsus stem (4561.26 cal / g). Analysis using scatter diagrams shows that lignin levels, extractive substances levels, and density have a positive correlation with heating values while hemicellulose levels, cellulose content, ash content, and ash content have a negative correlation with heating values.


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