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NILAI PERUBAHAN KONSEP VISUALISASI SIMBOL (PELINGGIH) DALAM PROSES INTERAKSINYA DI BALI

THE VALUE OF CONCEPT CHANGE OF SYMBOL VISUALIZATION (PELINGGIH) IN ITS INTERACTION PROCESS IN BALI

PhD Theses from JBPTITBPP / 2018-06-25 08:51:33
Oleh : I NYOMAN LARRY JULIANTO (NIM 37013005), S3 - Visual Art and Design-FSRD
Dibuat : 2018, dengan 1 file

Keyword : Perubahan Konsep, Visualisasi Pelinggih, Interaksi Simbolik, Bali

Bali merupakan sebuah pulau yang penuh dengan nilai – nilai kebudayaan dengan



proses penyampaiannya melalui sebuah pesan yang pemvisualisasiannya dalam



wujud simbol. Simbol bersifat cognitive constructs serta emotive, sehingga



dikatakan bahwa manusia menggunakan aktivitas simbolik dalam proses



pembudayaan. Fenomena perubahan kebudayaan merupakan akibat dari proses



pergeseran, pengurangan dan penambahan unsur sistem budaya karena adanya



proses interaksi dengan lingkungan. Pengamatan secara visual memperlihatkan



telah terjadi fenomena perubahan pemvisualisasian simbol dalam wujud pelinggih



di Bali. Wujud fisiknya mengalami perubahan bentuk dari wujud pelinggih yang



memiliki identitas budaya lokal Bali, namun fungsi esensinya sebagai tempat



pemujaan tidak berubah. Permasalahannya adalah masyarakat di Bali cenderung



menerima fenomena tersebut dalam proses berkehidupan hingga masa sekarang,



sebagai proses interaksi simbolik yang menjadi identitas warisan budaya.



Aktivitas keagamaan di Bali tidak terlepas dari penggunaan simbol – simbol,



bahkan simbol merupakan media bagi umat Hindu untuk ‘mendekatkan diri’ serta


‘memohon’ perlindungan Tuhan. Dicermati secara visual, terlihat bahwa di Bali



terjadi ‘pergeseran’ representasi simbol dalam wujud pelinggih, sebagai media



untuk mengomunikasikan pesan secara visual. Pelinggih merupakan salah satu



simbol alam semesta yang diyakini sebagai sthana Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa



beserta manifestasi-Nya atau para roh suci leluhur. Konsep peletakan pelinggih



berupa Tri Mandala, yaitu kanistama mandala (area luar), madhyama mandala



(area tengah) dan uttama mandala (area utama). Keberadaan pelinggih di Bali



merupakan sarana mewujudkan harmonisasi dengan Tuhan, sesama dan alam.



Fenomena ‘keunikan’ secara visual pada perwujudan pelinggih, terdapat pada



wilayah Pura di daerah Bali Selatan dan Utara. Pelinggih unik tersebut berbentuk



mobil serta bunga teratai (terdapat lima simbol agama pada bagian singhāsana).



Penelitian etnografi terfokus, mengenai perubahan visualisasi simbol dalam wujud



pelinggih di Bali yang menjadi identitas warisan budaya, maka berupaya dipahami



konsep kebaruan dalam ‘proses kreatif’ diluar ‘konteks diri’ untuk



mengomunikasikan pesan melalui sebuah media komunikasi visual. Pendekatan



analisis visual digunakan untuk memahami bagaimana perubahan visualisasi



simbol dalam wujud pelinggih tersebut direproduksi untuk konsepsi religi atau



sakral.



Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa simbol dalam wujud pelinggih merupakan



hasil pengejewantahan pengalaman nyata yang bersifat memorable experience,



serta mengomunikasikan pesan akulturasi sistem budaya masyarakat yang saling



berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sosial sekitar pada masanya. Konsep



perwujudannya mengalami perubahan akibat kecenderungan perubahan proses



berpikir (organisme) dalam upaya meningkatkan stimulus untuk menghasilkan



respon yang impresif. Wujud visualisasinya mengandung nilai religi dan mitologis



yang berelasi terhadap konsep keseimbangan alam semesta, sehingga keberadaan



pelinggih unik tersebut cenderung dapat diterima hingga masa sekarang. Simbol


‘kebaruan’ terwujud dengan meminjam kode sakral yang sudah ‘mapan’ serta



melekat pada konsepsi simbol dalam wujud pelinggih. Perubahan konsep



visualisasi simbol tersebut bukanlah karena terjadinya degradasi nilai religi



maupun hasil proses berpikir masyarakat primitif, melainkan akibat



kecenderungan ‘pergeseran’ wujud rasa bakti dalam proses yadnya. Pergeseran



dilandasi kecenderungan tindakan manusia untuk mendekatkan atau



menghadirkan Ida Sang Hyang Widhi beserta manifestasinya, sehingga cenderung



peningkatan bakti yang semakin kuat serta mendalam menjadi proses


‘memanusiakan’ Tuhan. Proses tersebut mengakibatkan simbol menjadi



representasi wujud yadnya yang semakin mengikat serta mendekatkan pada



konsepsi manusia. Wujud visual simbol yang bersifat religi (sakral dan suci),



cederung bersinggungan dengan interaksi sosial dari konsepsi manusia dalam



proses berkehidupannya. Kecenderungan perkembangan proses berpikir



masyarakat pada masa terjadinya perubahan konsep visualisasi simbol dalam



wujud pelinggih pada tahun 1948, lebih bersifat ontologis. Dimulai pada tahun +



1965, perkembangan alam pikir masyarakat cenderung lebih bersifat pragmatis



serta fungsional dalam aktifitas sosial, namun tidak menghilangkan nilai mitologis



untuk memperkuat konsepsi sakral dan religius dalam proses interaksinya di Bali.



Prinsip keseimbangan dalam konsep Tri Hita Karana menjadi landasan



masyarakat menuju pada kesadaran spiritualnya.



Interpretasi terhadap perubahan visualisasi simbol dalam wujud pelinggih, dapat



mencegah pergeseran makna dan fungsinya serta mampu memperdalam



pemahaman terhadap ‘konsep diri’ masyarakat di Bali. Memahami ‘proses kreatif’



diluar ‘konteks diri’ dalam mengomunikasikan pesan yang bersifat religi melalui



media komunikasi visual, maka respon yang dihasilkan dari proses organisme



bersifat kesadaran kolektif. Penelitian ini berkontribusi pada keilmuan desain



komunikasi visual, karena pembahasan secara holistik berfokus mengungkap



esensi perubahan konsep visualisasi simbol dalam konteks mengomunikasikan



pesan secara visual, terkait analogi simbol dalam wujud pelinggih sebagai



medium pemujaan.

Deskripsi Alternatif :

Bali is an island which is full of cultural values in which those values are



conveyed through a message which is visualized in the form of symbol. Symbols



are cognitive constructs and emotive, so that it can be said that human uses the



symbolic activity in the process of cultural establishment. The phenomenon of



cultural change is the result of the process of shifting, reducing and adding of



cultural system element which occurs because of the process of interaction with



the environment. Visual observation shows that there has been a phenomenon of



change in visualizing symbol in the form of pelinggih in Bali. Its physical form



has changed from the form of pelinggih that has a local cultural identity of Bali



but its essence function as a place of worship has not changed. The problem is



that people in Bali tend to accept that phenomenon in the process of life up to the



present, as a process of symbolic interaction that becomes the identity of cultural



heritage.



Every religious activity in Bali is inseparable from the use of symbols, even those



symbols are used as a medium for Hindus to 'get closer' to God and 'beg' His



protection. When it is observed visually it is seen that in Bali there is a 'shift' of



symbol representation in the form of pelinggih, as a medium to communicate the



message visually. Pelinggih is one of the symbols of the universe that is believed



to be the sthana of Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa along with his manifestation or



the ancestral spirits. The concept of pelinggih placement is Tri Mandala, namely



kanistama mandala (outside area), madhyama mandala (middle area) and uttama



mandala (main area). The existence of pelinggih in Bali is a medium to achieve



harmonization with God, others and nature. The phenomenon of 'uniqueness'



visually in the pelinggih materialization is found in the temple area of South and



North Bali. Those unique pelinggih are in the shape of car and lotus (there are



five religious symbols on the singhāsana).



Ethnographic research is focused on the change of symbol visualization in the



form of pelinggih in Bali that becomes the identity of cultural heritage, then it is



tried to be understood the concept of novelty in the 'creative process' beyond the
'self context' to communicate the message through a visual communication media.



The visual analysis approach is used to understand how the change in visualization of symbols in the form of pelinggih is reproduced for religious or



sacred conceptions.



The result of the research stated that the symbol in the form of pelinggih is the



result of manifestation of real experience that is memorable experience, and



communicate the acculturation message of cultural system of society that interact



with the surrounding social environment at the time. The concept of the



materialization is changed as a result of the tendency of the change of the thinking



process (organism) in an effort to increase the stimulus to produce an impressive



response. The form of its visualization contains religious and mythological values



that is related to the concept of equilibrium of the universe, so that the existence



of unique pelinggih tend to be accepted until now. The symbol of 'novelty' is



formed by borrowing the sacred code that has been 'well established' and



attached to the conception of symbols in the form of pelinggih. Changes in the



concept of symbol visualization is not due to the degradation of religious values



or the result of thinking process of the primitive societies, but due to the tendency



of 'shifting' of devotion form in the process of yadnya. The shift is based on the



tendency of human action to bring Ida Sang Hyang Widhi along with its



manifestation closer or to make Him present, so the tendency is the increase of the



devotion which is getting stronger and deeper become the process of 'humanizing'



God. That process causes the symbol becomes representation of yadnya which is



increasingly binding and bring closer to the conception of human. The visual



appearance of religious symbols (sacred and holy) tends to be related to the



social interaction of human conception in the process of their life. The tendency of



the development of the thinking process of society at the time of the concept



change of symbol visualization in the form of pelinggih in 1948 is more



ontological. Started in + 1965 the development of the mind of the people tended to



be more pragmatic and functional in social activities, but did not diminish the



mythological value to reinforce the sacred and religious conceptions in its



interaction process in Bali. The principle of balance in the concept of Tri Hita



Karana becomes the basis of society toward their spiritual awareness.



The interpretation on the change of symbol visualization in the form of pelinggih,



can prevent the shift of meaning and function and able to deepen the



understanding of 'self concept' of society in Bali. By understanding the 'creative



process' beyond the 'self context' in communicating the religious message through



visual communication media, so the response generated from the process of



organisms is collective awareness. This research contributes to the science of



visual communication design, since the holistic discussion focuses on revealing



the essence of concept change of symbol visualization in the context of



communicating the message visually, related to the analogy of symbol in the form



of pelinggih as a medium of worship.

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