Path: TopS3-DissertationsEnvironmental Engineering-FTSL2017

IDENTIFIKASISETTLEMENT PRA PENAMBAHAN LAPISANDALAM MEKANISMESETTLEMENTSAMPAH DI LANDFILL

IDENTIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT PRIOR TO THE ADDITION OF MSW LAYERS IN MSW SETTLEMENT MECHANISM IN LANDFILL

PhD Theses from JBPTITBPP / 2017-10-02 13:32:46
Oleh : FEBRIAN HADINATA ( NIM: 35312003 ), S3 - Environmental Engineering-FTSL
Dibuat : 2017-10-02, dengan 1 file

Keyword : :level tekanan, kompresibilitas, settlement awal, model settlement

Kurangnya kajian mengenai settlement menyebabkan besarnya ketidakpastian dalam desain dan monitoring landfill di Indonesia. Settlement sering diabaikan dalam desain, sehingga estimasi umur pakai landfill menjadi under-estimate.Mekanisme dalam settlementsampah di landfill meliputi kompresi segera dan kompresi sekunder, yang terlihat dalam perilaku kompresibilitas sampah.Parameter yang digunakan adalah rasio kompresi segera (Cc’) yang menggambarkan perilaku kompresi pada fase kompresi segera, dan rasio kompresi sekunder (Cα) yang menggambarkan perilaku kompresi pada fase rayapan mekanik dan biokompresi. Terdapat empat jenis model estimasi settlementlandfill berdasarkan nilai Cc’, Cα, geometri timbunan dan waktu, meliputi: model berbasiskan Mekanika Tanah, model empiris, model rheologi dan model terkait biodegradasi.Penelitian yang dilakukan meliputi pengukuran kompresibilitas sampah dengan alat sel kompresi dan simulasi settlement sampah di landfill pada lisimeter. Pengembangan model estimasi settlement sampah dilakukan dengan memasukkan faktor settlement awal pra penambahan lapisan sampah.


Untuk mengetahui perilaku kompresibilitas sampah pada skala laboratorium, sebuah alat sel kompresi dibuat dengan diameter dan tinggi mould sebesar 350- dan 500-mm. Uji kompresi dilakukan dengan tekanan awal dan penambahan tekanan sesuai dengan penambahan tekanan yang diterima sampah akibat berat sendiri lapisansampah yang berada di atasnya. Uji dilakukan pada sampelsampah kertas dengan kepadatan tinggi (KertasHD), sampah kertas dengan kepadatan sedang (KertasMD), dan sampah kompos dengan kepadatan sedang (KomposMD). Kertas mewakili sampah organik yang masih segar dengan pori yang besar, sedangkan kompos mewakili sampah yang telah terdegradasidengan ukuran dan struktur pori yang lebih kecil. Air lindi diperbolehkan untuk keluar dari alat sel kompresi. Uji dilakukan dengan acuan standar uji ASTM D2435–96–Standard Test Method for One–DimensionalConsolidation Properties of Soils.Dari hasil uji di sel kompresi, didapatkan nilai Cc’ untuk KertasHD, KertasMD dan KomposMD, masing-masing sebesar 0,0696; 0,2949 dan 0,0932. Sedangkan nilai Cα untuk KertasHD, KertasMD dan KomposMD, masing-masing sebesar 0,0056; 0,0211 dan 0,0060.Hasil uji menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara densitas awaldan komponen terhadap kompresibilitas sampah.


Tiga lisimeter dengan diameter 820 mm dan tinggi masing-masing sebesar 2000-, 3000- dan 2000-mm disiapkan untuk mensimulasikan settlement sampah di landfill.Sampel sampah merupakan sampah perkotaanyang diambil dari salah satu TPS di kota Bandung.Tiga lapisan sampel sampah dimasukkan ke dalam lisimeter, dengan jeda waktu input sampel ke lisimeter antar lapisan adalah dua hari. Komposisi sampel sampah didominasi oleh sisa makanan, kertas, plastik dan daun. Sampel mengandung kadar air dan bahan organik yang tinggi, dengan kadar air sebesar 69,05% (% berat basah) dan kadar volatil sebesar 78,72% (% berat kering). Kepadatan (bulk) sampah di lisimeter berkisar antara 0,41 s.d 0,64 ton/m3. Tiga varian sampel di tiga lisimeter, adalah:sampah organik dengan tinggi setiap lapis sekitar 35 cm (MSWorganik), sampah campur dengan tinggi setiap lapis sekitar 70 cm (MSWcampur-h1) dan, sampah campur dengan tinggi setiap lapis sekitar 35 cm (MSWcampur-h2).Air hujan dan lindi diperbolehkan untuk masuk dan keluar dari lisimeter. Uji dilakukan dengan acuan standar uji ASTM D2435-96.Dari hasil pengukuran, didapatkan nilai Cc’ untuk sampel MSWorganik, MSWcampur-h1 dan MSWcampur-h2, masing – masing sebesar 0,4177; 0,3917 dan 0,3615. Sedangkan nilai Cα untuk sampel MSWorganik, MSWcampur-h1 dan MSWcampur-h2, masing-masing sebesar 0,0602; 0,0887 dan 0,0586.Nilai rasio kompresi (Cc’ dan Cα) sampel sampah termasuk tinggi, disebabkan oleh kadar air dan kandungan organik sampel yang tinggi. Komposisi organik mempengaruhi perilaku sampah yang menjadi lebih kompresibel.Tinggi lapisan juga berbanding lurus dengan kompresibilitas sampah.


Dari hasil simulasi settlement sampah di lisimeter, diketahui adanya settlementawal sampah yang cukup besar sebelum penambahan tekanan/lapisan sampah dilakukan, antara 10 - 17%. Sehingga dilakukan modifikasi pada model estimasi settlement, dengan memasukkan faktor settlement sebelum penambahan lapisan sampah. Hasil deteksi menunjukkan bahwa settlement awal merupakan sebuah model regresi linier dari regangan (settlement per tinggi awal) vs logaritma waktu. Persamaan settlement awal merupakan kombinasi dari dua parameter baru yang diusulkan yaitu; rasio kompresi awal (C0) yang terikat dengan parameter logaritma waktu, dan konstanta (a) yang mencerminkan regangan pada saat t = 1 hari. Sehingga, model estimasi settlement yang semula merupakan kombinasi dari settlement pada fase kompresi segera dan fase kompresi sekunder, menjadi kombinasi dari settlement pada fase kompresi awal, fase kompresi segera dan fase kompresi sekunder. Modifikasi inimampu menurunkan selisih antara settlementsampah hasil estimasi dan hasil pengukuran di lisimeter.

Deskripsi Alternatif :

The lack of settlement studies has led to considerable uncertainty in the design and monitoring of landfills in Indonesia.Settlements are often overlooked in landfill design, so estimates of the lifetime of landfill become under-estimate. Mechanisms in MSW settlement in landfill include immediate compression and secondary compression, which is seen in MSW's compressibility behavior. The parameters used are the immediate compression ratio (Cc') which describes the compression behavior in the immediate compression phase, the secondary compression ratio (Cα) which describes the compression behavior in mechanical creep and biocompression phase.There are four types of landfill settlement estimation models including; soil mechanics based model, empirical model, rheological model and biodegradation related model.Thisresearch included measurement ofartificial waste’s compressibility with compression cell and, simulation of MSW settlement in landfill in three lysimeters. Furthermore, the development of estimation model of MSW settlement was done by incorporating pre-settlement factor pre-addition of MSW layer


In order to measure MSW compressibility, a laboratory scale of compression cell tool was made with mould diameter and a high of 350- and 500-mm.The compression test was carried out with the initial pressure and the added pressure in accordance with the addition of pressure received by MSW due to the weight of the MSW layer above it.The test was performed on MSW samples of high density paper (PaperHD), MSW of medium-density paper (PaperMD), and MSW compost with moderate density (CompostMD). The paper represents fresh organic MSW with large pores, while compost represents MSW that has been degraded with smaller pore size and structure.Leachate is allowed to exit the compression cell tool.The test is performed by reference to ASTM D2435-96 test standard - Standard Test Method for One - Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils.From the test results in the compression cell, we get the value of Cc' for PaperHD, PaperMD and CompostMD, respectively - 0.0696; 0.2949 and 0.0932. While the value of Cα for PaperHD, PaperMD and CompostMD, respectively - 0.0056; 0,0211 and 0.0060. The test results showed the relationship between initial density and components to MSW compressibility.


Three lysimeters of 820 mm diameter and height of 2000-, 3000- and 2000-mm respectively were prepared for simulatedMSW settlement in landfill. The sample used was MSW taken from one of the temporary waste stations in Bandung. Three MSW sample layers were inserted into the lysimeter, with the time lag of the sample input to the lysimeter interlayer being two days. MSW sample composition was dominated by food waste, paper, plastic and leaves.The sample contained high moisture content and organic matter, with moisture content of 69.05% (% of wet weight) and volatile content of 78.72% (% of dry weight). The density (bulk) of MSW in the lysimeter ranges from 0.41 to 0.64 tons/m3. Three variants of the sample in the three lysimeters were: organic MSW with a height of each layer of about 35 cm (MSWorganic), mixed MSW with each layer approximately 70 cm (MSWmixed-1) and mixed MSW with each layer approximately 35 cm (MSWmixed- 2). Rain water and leachate were allowed to enter and exit the lysimeter. The test was performed by reference to ASTM D2435-96 test standard.From the test results, obtained Cc'values for MSWorganic, MSW mixed-1 and MSW mixed-2 samples, each of 0.4177; 0.3917 and 0.3615.While the Cα values for the sample ofMSWorganic, MSW mixed-1 and MSW mixed-2, respectively 0.0602; 0.0887 and 0.0586.The compression ratio values (Cc'and Cα) of the MSW sample were high, due to the high water content and organic content of the sample.The organic composition affected the behavior of MSW which became more compressible. The height of layers were also directly proportional to MSW compressibility.


From the results of the simulation in three lysimeters, it was known that the initial settlement of MSW was quite large before the addition of MSW layer was done, between 10 to 17%. The modification of the settlement estimation model was made by adding the settlement factor before adding the MSW layer. The detection results showed that the initial settlement was a linear regression model of settlement vs logarithm of time. The initial settlement equation is a combination of two proposed new parameters ie; the initial compression ratio (C0) is bound to the logarithmic time parameter, and the constant (a) reflects the strain at t = 1 day.Thus, the original settlement estimation model is a combination of settlement in the immediate compression phase and the secondary compression phase, being a combination of settlement in initial compression phase, the immediate compression phase and the secondary compression phase.This modification is able to decrease the difference between estimated and real settlement value in the lysimeter.

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  • Prof. Dr. Ir. Enri Damanhuri.,

    Dr. Benno Rahardyan, S.T., M.T.,

    Dr. I Made Wahyu Widyarsana, S.T., M.T, Editor: Lili Sawaludin Mulyadi

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