Path: TopS1-Final ProjectMetallurgical Engineering-FTTM2017

BIOLEACHING KONSENTRAT GALENA BOGOR MENGGUNAKAN BAKTERI MIXOTROF PENGOKSIDASI BESI DAN SULFUR DENGAN PENAMBAHAN FeCl3 DAN NaCl

BIOLEACHING OF GALENA CONCENTRATES FROM BOGOR USING IRON- AND SULFUR-OXIDIZING MIXOTROPHIC BACTERIA WITH ADDITION OF FeCl3 AND NaCl

Undergraduate Theses from JBPTITBPP / 2017-09-27 10:37:15
Oleh : EDINA AMADEA PUTRI (NIM : 12513014), S1 - Metallurgy
Dibuat : 2017-09-19, dengan 1 file

Keyword : bioleaching, timbal, galena (PbS), Citrobacter youngae, Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans, ekstraksi

Pengolahan timbal (Pb) dari galena (PbS) umumnya dilakukan melalui jalur pirometalurgi yang menghasilkan emisi gas berupa SO2 yang berbahaya. Secara hidrometalurgi, pengolahan timbal dapat dilakukan dengan pelindian menggunakan reagen kimia berupa asam organik dan asam anorganik. Saat ini, telah dilakukan beberapa penelitian di dunia mengenai bioleaching galena karena proses bioleaching lebih efisien, simpel, dan lebih ramah lingkungan apabila dibandingkan dengan proses konvensional. Namun demikian, produk akhir dari pelindian tersebut berupa timbal sulfat (PbSO4) yang tak terlarut sehingga diperlukan proses lebih lanjut untuk melindi timbal dari timbal sulfat tersebut. Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan proses bioleaching timbal dari konsentrat galena Bogor menggunakan bakteri mixotrof Citrobacter youngae strain SKC-4 dan Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans dengan penambahan FeCl3 dan NaCl.



Serangkaian percobaan bioleaching telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi NaCl, FeCl3, molase sebagai sumber substrat organik, jenis bakteri, persen padatan, dan metode bioleaching yang digunakan, terhadap persen ekstraksi timbal, Eh-pH, dan selektivitas bioleaching terhadap tembaga dan seng. Bioleaching dilakukan menggunakan rotary shaker pada temperatur ruang selama 7 hari. Kadar logam terlarut yaitu timbal, tembaga, dan seng dianalisis dengan menggunakan atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Kemudian dilakukan pula analisis X-ray diffraction (XRD) dan Fourier transfrom infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) terhadap residu bioleaching.



Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa persen ekstraksi timbal tertinggi pada metode semi-direct bioleaching dengan menggunakan Citrobacter youngae yakni sebesar 13% pada kondisi 5% (w/v) padatan, 5 g/L FeCl3, 50 g/L NaCl, dan 20 g/L molase. Pada metode semi-direct bioleaching menggunakan Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans, persen ekstraksi cenderung menurun selama 7 hari bioleaching dan pada hari ke-7 diperoleh persen ekstraksi timbal tertinggi sebesar 3,17% pada 2% (w/v) padatan, 5 g/L FeCl3, 50 g/L NaCl, dan 20 g/L molase. Sementara itu, dengan menggunakan metode direct bioleaching persen ekstraksi timbal tertinggi yakni sebesar 25,05% diperoleh dengan menggunakan bakteri Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans pada 2% (w/v) padatan, 5 g/L FeCl3 dan 50 g/L NaCl. Pada kondisi yang sama, dengan penambahan 20 g/L molase menggunakan Citrobacter youngae diperoleh persen ekstraksi timbal sebesar 23,51%.

Deskripsi Alternatif :

In general, the recovery of lead from galena via a pyrometallurgical route has environmental problems because of SO2 generation. Recovering lead from galena via hydrometallurgical route is using several organic and inorganic acids for lead dissolution. Currently, the recovery of lead has been studied by several investigators using bioleaching technology. This process is more efficient, simple, and environmentally friendly compared with conventional process. Unfortunately, undissolved lead sulfate is generated as the final product of bioleaching, thus requiring further process to leach lead from the lead sulfate. Hence, the present study investigated the bioleaching of galena concentrates from Bogor using mixotrophic bacteria (herein Citrobacter youngae strain SKC-4 and Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans) with the addition of FeCl3 and NaCl.



A series of bioleaching experiments were carried out to study the influence of NaCl, FeCl3, molasses as source of organic substrate, types of bacteria, pulp density, and bioleaching methods on the extraction efficiency of lead, Eh-pH, and bioleaching selectivity to copper and zinc. Bioleaching experiments were conducted on rotary shaker at room temperature for 7 days. Concentrations of lead, copper, and zinc in the solution were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The bioleaching solid residues were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transfrom infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).



Experimental results showed that the highest lead extraction from galena concentrates on semi-direct bioleaching using Citrobacter youngae was 13%, which was obtained at 5% pulp density, 5 g/L FeCl3, 50 g/L NaCl, and 20 g/L molasses. The lead extraction on semi-direct bioleaching using Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans decreased over a period of 7 days, which reached the level of 3.17% at 2% pulp density, leaching time of 7 days, 5 g/L FeCl3, 50 g/L NaCl, and 20 g/L molasses. In addition, the highest extraction levels of lead on direct bioleaching for Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans and Citrobacter youngae were 25.05% and 23.51%, respectively, which were achieved at 2% pulp density, 5 g/L FeCl3, 50 g/L NaCl and 20 g/L molasses.

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